Recommended Stories. The ZIP code you entered is outside the service areas of the states in which we operate. Apple and AMD suffered stock declines inbut that hasn't dampened their excellent long-term outlooks. Best Rating Services, Inc. You have selected the store.
This is done by loading and editing an existing. Whencreating a new prompt, you are provided with a text field where you can type the prompt script for whoeverwill be recording the prompt.
You can then have your voice talent record and review the prompts by selectingeach prompt and pressing the record button. This is possibly the feature that sets V-Builder apart from its competition. By hitting the green play button, V-Builder starts up the Nuance server software and, using the sound card, allows you to interact with the application using the same software that would be run in production. This is also a great time saver where you may have otherwise spent several hours tuning your prompt delays and synthesized output overthe telephone.
Being able to run the application through the Nuance software is a time saver. Probably my favorite V-Builder feature is the ability to test grammar files.
A detailed report of the match results against the grammar is displayed after you stop speaking. Since grammars are the most difficult part of developing a production qualityVoiceXML application, this tool provide a great resource for tuning and refining your grammars beforeyou deploy them to a VoiceXML gateway for testing.
This makes production rollouts easier for Web developers who may not have a good handle on packaging, distributing, and installing software. It uses the WebDav protocol, whichis usually turned off by default on most Web servers, so you will have to turn it on if you wantpush button publishing capabilities.
For me, FTP is just as easy. Weaknesses Even though V-Builder is a strong tool, it still has its weaknesses. This is forgiveable given that it isas new as VoiceXML. A feature that still needs some work is the graphical grammar builder. While I think a visual representation of a grammar can be helpful, V-Builder has a tendancyto erase the contents of the grammar when switching from the diagram to the source view. This can probably besolved by adding additional memory however.
Every now and then, I get an erronious non-critical Java errorthat causes the interface to do strange things, requiring me to restart the application. Also, keep in mind that theseerrors are irregular. They happen to me maybe once or twice over the course of a day under whichmy machine is usually using all available memory to run several large applications in addition toV-Builder.
Conclusion Overall, I give V-Builder a 4 out of 5 rating. Also, the tool does not yet support the VoiceXML 2. From what I hear, these issues will be resolved in the next release of the productand will likely receive a 5 from this reviewer in the future. From examining and using V-Builder,I really appreciate the time and effort that has been spent to make it easy for developers tobegin developing VoiceXML applications with minimal effort.
Keep up thegood work guys. He has also written articles for other online and print publications including WebReference. Feel free to send an email to [email protected] regarding questions or comments about the VoiceXML Developer series, or for more information about training and consulting services. In addition to covering the most popular programming languages today, we publish reviews and round-ups of developer tools that help devs reduce the time and money spent developing, maintaining, and debugging their applications.
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TechnologyAdvice does not include all companies or all types of products available in the marketplace. NET Visual Basic. Voice Review: Nuance V-Builder 1. Review: Nuance V-Builder 1. By Jonathan Eisenzopf. September 19, Latest Posts. Chapter 4 describes more complex grammar-writing techniques that include natural language interpretation. You specify a grammar in a grammar file. A grammar file is a text fileit can contain more than one grammar definition, and it has the file extension.
A grammar file is the basic component necessary to build a recognition package. Before plunging into the details of grammar writing, this section presents a very simple grammar and the different views of that grammar within the NGBs environment. This grammar describes sentences like a cat chased rabbits, a black dog chased all the brown squirrels, and the black cat chased squirrels, using the Grammar Specification Language GSL. GSL syntax is described in more detail later in this chapter.
The screen shot below shows the main NGB frame and a filenamed example. In this shot, the Chapter 2 Defining grammarsCreating a grammar file. Double-clicking a boxwhich represents a grammar expressionbrings up a dialog like the following that lets you set properties for that expression. You can set a variety of attributes of this construct including making it optional, repeating it one or more times, assigning a probability to it, adding alternates, and attaching natural language interpretations to each of its alternates.
Clicking the Text tab of the window displays the specification of the same grammar in GSL, as shown in the next screen shot. Chapter 2 Defining grammarsCreating a grammar file. The name of the grammar described in both views is. The pull down list at the top right of the windowdisplaying.
Sentence in both window screen shotscontains the list of all the grammars in the opened file. Each grammar can be separately displayed and edited. The simplest example of a grammar is one whose description is a single word:. Account checking. For example, if you create a grammar file called banking. The primary grammar file, however, need not be the only grammar file in your project, as GSL provides a directive that lets you refer to other grammar files within a grammar file.
GrammarName is the character string that other grammars or an application use to reference the named grammar. Grammar names must contain at least one uppercase charactertypically the first alphabetic characterand can be up to characters in length. All grammar names passed to the compiler must be distinctthat is, a grammar name can only have one grammar description associated with it.
A GrammarDescription consists of a sequence of word names, grammar names, and operators that define a set of recognizable word sequences or phrases. Grammar and word names must be separated from one another by at least one white space characterspace, tab, or newline. Word names are the terminal symbols in a grammar description. Word names are lowercase character strings that correspond directly to the actual words spoken for recognition.
For example, the word name dog corresponds directly to the spoken word dog. You can include other special characters except for white space and double quotes if you enclose the word in double quotes. You can add comments in a grammar description by using a semicolon ; all text in a line after a semicolon is ignored by the compiler.
Comments can be included anywhere in a grammar file or in any of the other package files mentioned in this manual. You construct a grammar description by using a set of five basic grammar operators: , [ ],? White space is optional between operators and operands grammar or word names. Caution: The following strings are reserved for internal use and cannot be used to denote words or grammar names n designates any integer :. While you can define grammars by simply creating and editing text files, NGB assists you in writing your grammars in several ways:.
The diagram view shows a graphical representation on the grammar, often making it easier to understand the structure of the grammar. In the diagram view, the GSL operators for concatenation, disjunction, optionality, and positive and kleene closure are visually represented. You can expand or collapse an expression to have a detailed or global view of the grammar using that expression.
Both views have editing capabilities. The changes made in one view are instantly reflected in the other. See the NGB help system for a complete description of all the features that support grammar writing. You can build a hierarchy of grammars using subgrammars. By breaking a grammar into smaller units, you can create components that are reusable by multiple grammars or applications.
A grammar is either a top-level grammar or a subgrammar. A top-level grammar is, by definition, one whose name has a period. Only top-level grammars can be referenced by an application at runtime.
Any other grammarone whose name does not begin with a periodis a subgrammar that can only be referenced by other grammars. A grammar named. You could think of a top-level grammar as being public, while a subgrammar is privateonly accessible within the package. Caution: The distinction between top grammars and subgrammars does not apply to grammars used by Nuance SpeechObjects. See the SpeechObjects documentation for details on SpeechObjects-specific grammar conventions.
Subgrammars let you define complex grammars as a hierarchy of smaller grammars. This simplifies your specifications and provides a more efficient way to specify grammars with shared internal structure.
For example, a grammar defining how to say a date might have subgrammars for day, month, and year, and those subgrammars might reference subgrammars for different ways of saying numbers, and so on:. The top-level grammar. Date can then be referenced by applications for use during recognition, without needing to know anything about the subgrammars used by the.
Date grammar. To include the contents of a subgrammar in a grammar description, you just refer to the subgrammar by its unique name as you do with a word name. The description of the subgrammar referred to is included in exactly the location you specify it in.
For example, the following grammars describe naturally phrased numbers from 0 to Four subgrammars are defined, and then used to create the top-level grammar. N, that can be referenced by applications. N [? Phrases defined by the top-level grammar. N include: two, eight two, zero, seventeen, fifty, and thirty nine.
In many cases the grammars for a particular application are defined in a single main grammar specification file. However, you can use the include directive to include a grammar file in another one. This allows you to create modular subgrammars that you can later include in the grammar file for one or more applications, keeping your application grammar files smaller and simpler.
Included grammar files can contain both subgrammars and top-level grammars. An included file may itself contain include lines. The difference between the previous two include directives is the way in which the compiler searches for the specified file, described in the following section.
Note: If you are using the Nuance command line toolkit, the use of the include directive is necessary when your grammars are defined in more than one file. This is because you can only pass one file as an argument to the command line compiler.
To cause the grammar Chapter 2 Defining grammarsGrammar hierarchies. The compiler actually searches for included grammars based on the natural language of the current model set.
These grammars are accessible via the include construct when one of the Spanish. America acoustic model set is used, as the model set specified to the compiler determines the specific natural language and dialect being used in the grammars. You can copy these files into your package directory and include them in your grammars, using them verbatim or editing them as needed.
The name format of the grammar files in the English. America directory is. To include the latest version of a grammar, such as the money grammar, use the directive: include. If the latest version of the money grammar is 6. If you want to work with a specific version of the money grammar, such as the version 5, you must specify the version number, as in the following directive: include.
Caution: Be careful with the use of the include directive. Multiple inclusions of a grammar file result in compilation errors, as all grammar names passed to the compiler must have exactly one definition.
The use of the directive include is discouraged if you are using NGB to write your grammars, but necessary otherwise. In fact, within the NGB environment, you do not need to use this directive at all because of the way grammars files are referenced through a hidden master grammar file. Consult the NGB help for more details on the master grammar file and how to include files in your project without explicitly using includes.
Nuance Grammar Builder comes equipped with a Grammar Library with more than 50 subgrammars ready for use in your development. You can view the contents of a grammar file and include it in a NGB project or modify it to fit your needs. The Grammar Library provides you with grammars most commonly used in applications such as grammars for dates, time, digits, numbers, and commands. Chapter 2 Defining grammarsGrammar hierarchies. Recursive grammarsgrammars that reference themselvesare only allowed in certain cases.
The NounPhrase grammar is recursive because it references PrepositionalPhrase, whose description makes reference back to NounPhrase. The Grammar Specification Language does not support left-recursive grammars. Left recursion occurs when the self reference direct or indirect is located in the leftmost position. Any other type of recursion is valid in GSL. For example, the following grammar will not compile because it is left recursive:Digits Digits Digit.
The previous grammar is prohibited because Determiner appears in the initial position within NounPhrase, and NounPhrase appears in the initial position within Determiner.
Note that while NounPhrase does not literally appear in the initial leftmost position in the definition of Determiner, it is treated as such because it appears in an OR construction where the order is not meaningful.
An equivalent definition for the Determiner subgrammar could also be:Determiner [ NounPhrase. See Creating unflattened grammars on page 40 for details on this compiler option. The recognition engine uses probabilities to weight constructs while searching for matches in its data space. These weights force the recognizer to favor certain phrases over others.
Typically you assign higher probabilities to phrases expected to be spoken more frequently. Adding probabilities to your grammar can potentially increase both recognition accuracy and speedhowever, assigning bad probability values can actually hurt recognition performance. Grammar probabilities are recommended only for large vocabulary grammars over words where probabilities can be accurately estimated based on real usage.
If you are using NGB, double-clicking a box construct in the diagram view of a grammar brings up a dialog where you can set, among other things, an overall probability for the construct and probabilities for the phrases in that construct. The next screen shot shows this dialog opened for the disjunct expression [rabbits squirrels].
The shot contains a partial display of the diagram view of the grammar. Sentence introduced at the beginning of this chapter. A probability of. Probabilities are mostly used in disjunct OR constructs. Specifying no probabilities is the same as specifying a probability of 1. You can also assign probabilities to the operand of optional?
The meaning of such an expression is illustrated in the following table:. Note: Nuance recommends that, if you choose to use grammar probabilities, you test your applications performance both with and without probabilities. This feature is useful when you want to compare recognition performance of a package with and without the use of probabilities. A dynamic grammar is a grammar that can be created and modified by a running application. This section describes how to specify dynamic grammars in a GSL grammar definition, so you can add dynamic grammar support to your recognition package, and how to add dynamic grammar attachment points to your grammars so that portions of your grammars can be specified at runtime,.
For more comprehensive information about dynamic grammars, see the Nuance Application Developers Guide. To add a dynamic grammar as a component in a top-level grammar, use the following GSL syntax:GrammarName:dynamic.
This specification acts as a placeholder for the dynamic grammar that your application inserts at runtime. For example, this shows a simple GSL file that specifies a grammar for a breakfast menu that includes daily specials:.
Entree [ Pancakes Eggs Specials ]Pancakes [ blueberry buckwheat ] pancakes Eggs [ fried scrambled boiled ] eggs Specials:dynamic. When you compile the grammar. Entree, it contains the phrases blueberry pancakes, buckwheat pancakes, fried eggs, scrambled eggs, and boiled eggs, but the Specials subgrammar is empty.
To fill the Specials grammar at runtime, your application finds or assembles the correct dynamic grammar in the appropriate database and inserts it into the. Entree grammar at the location Specials:. After inserting this dynamic grammar, the grammar. Entree contains the phrases bran muffins, bagels with lox, and oatmeal in addition to its previous contents. You can specify whether these phrases should remain in the grammar indefinitely or only for the duration of the current call.
A dynamic grammar can also fill slots. Be careful, however, that any slots that are filled are defined in the target package. For information about slots see Chapter 4. Note: A dynamic grammar must be a subgrammar in another top-level grammarit cannot be a top-level grammar itself. It can, however, be as simple as:.
In this case you can perform recognition using the top-level grammar. DynamicGrammar, whose contents are completely dynamic. You must compile a dynamic grammar and a static grammar using the same acoustic model set. For complete details on dynamic grammars see the Nuance Application Developers Guide. You can create static grammars that you can later reference dynamically. This can be useful if you want to create a dynamic grammar from one or more existing subgrammars.
To do this, you create the static grammars using the keyword dynaref. For example:Losangeles:dynaref [ los angeles? Note that referencing a grammar that does not exist in the applications recognition package causes an errortherefore, be careful in renaming or removing dynamically referenced grammars in a grammar file. Enrollment is the feature that lets users add spoken phrases to a dynamic grammar. During enrollment, the recognition system listens to the user speak a phrase, generates pronunciation for that phrase by performing phonetic recognition of the utterance, and returns the pronunciation, along with a phrase identifier, to the application.
To perform voice enrollment, the recognition package of your application must include the special grammar EnrollmentGrammar, defined in the Nuance grammar file enrollment.
This grammar enables phonetic recognition, and allows the system to generate pronunciations for spoken phrases. Add this as a subgrammar in a top-level grammar, for example:; enrollment.
When you perform enrollment, you use this as the recognition grammar. This grammar can also include any words or subgrammars needed for your application. For example, your application might allow the user to say things like help and cancel during enrollment, in which case your enrollment grammar should include those phrases. You compile this grammar just like any other grammar; the resulting recognition package can be used for both standard non-enrollment recognition tasks, or to generate the pronunciations for utterances.
Note that the enrollment grammar is what you specify only during the enrollment process. To use this grammar for recognition, you still have to insert it into a static grammar, at a location defined by the syntax:GrammarName:dynamic. Through deployment experience, Nuance has developed some general recommendations and language-specific conventions that you should conform to when writing grammars.
For the most up-to-date information for the language you are working with, see the documentation section of the Nuance Developer Network website at extranet.
Compiling grammarsA grammar file is compiled into a recognition package using the Nuance utility nuance-compile.
Compiling grammars within the NGBs environment is very easy. Select the item Compile from the Tools menuor alternatively, click the compile icon on the grammar toolbarto display the Grammar Compiler Options dialog. You use this dialog to set the options you want to pass to the compiler and to select the master package the set of acoustic models to use for compilation. The output generated by the compilerother than the compiled packageis shown in the output window.
In particular, this window displays compilation errors. One great advantage of the NGB environment is that you can go from an error description to the source of that error by double-clicking the error message. Note: See the NGB help system for further details on how to compile grammars with NGB and how to locate the source of a compilation error.
It can be a relative or absolute path, and identifies where nuance-compile looks for the grammar file and other package files. In particular, if you pass in a string without slashes, the current directory is searched. The grammar file passed to nuance-compile must contain once all the include directives have been expanded at least one top-level grammar. The second required argument to nuance-compile is the name of an acoustic model set. See Choosing a model set on page 33 for complete information on model sets.
Executing the command-line program nuance-compile without arguments returns information about its usage and default settings. Further usage information can be obtained by using the -options switch. Note: The subset of nuance-compile options discussed in this guide is listed in Summary of compiler options on page By default nuance-compile overwrites any previously-compiled package files.
To prevent files from being overwritten, use the nuance-compile argument -nooverwrite. The package directory contains all the files that the Nuance System needs for speech recognition.
The actual contents of this directory vary depending on the options that you have specified. In particular, the file out.
The Nuance System provides multiple sets of acoustic-phonetic hidden Markov models, or master packages. However, these models also work well with most other microphones and audio channels. Nuance provides master packages for multiple natural languages and packages that are optimized for use in several different types of environments.
Note: If a master package is for a language for which only a single dialect is supported or for which the dialect name is equivalent to the language name, the dialect modifier is omitted. For example, the master package supporting Canadian French speakers is French. Canada, while the master package supporting French European French speakers is simply French. All languages have master packages with a model type number equal to 1, and this version is called the standard package.
American English has master packages with model numbers 1, 2 and Packages with model type number 2 are called extended packages. Extended packages perform additional recognition processing that may improve accuracy but requires additional memory. Chapter 3 Compiling grammarsChoosing a model set.
Packages with model type number 3 are called mobile packages and are intended for use in hands-free environments, on cellular phones, and in other environments with high levels of background noises. Typically, you should leave out the version number when referencing a master packagethe compiler defaults to using the latest version.
If you need to use a specific version of a master package, you can specify it explicitly. To determine how default names are mapped to specific master package names, use the utility nuance-master-packages. An acoustic model or master package is language specific. The Nuance System provides multiple models for some languages and dialects, such as American English. The model you use has an impact on your applications performance.
Nuance releases new language-specific model sets as they become available. For a complete list of the acoustic models and languages supported, visit the NDN website at extranet. The command-line program nuance-master-packages lists of all the models installed on your system and the default model names mappings. America and English. The model set English. This model provides fast and accurate recognition for most applications. If your system has memory constraints, try using English.
This model was created from a collection of acoustic models to allow for robust handling of any type of incoming speech, including normal land lines, cellular phones, and hands-free equipment. This is not currently intended to be used as the default model for all applications. Nuance is continuing to test and tune the package to verify that its performance is comparable to the current master packages for callers from non-hands-free lines.
Nuance recommends that you use this master package only if your application will have a significant percentage of hands-free callers. This master package is currently only available for American English and is shipped as the model set English. The Nuance System supports multilingual recognition. This feature lets you build applications that allow speakers to:. Use the correct pronunciation of foreign words in multi-lingual regions, for example, using the French pronunciation of French names within an English utterance.
Pronounce foreign words in international applications, for example, letting English or German-speaking callers use a Japanese dialing application and have names correctly recognized with the callers native accent. To implement an application that uses multiple languages, you must use a master package that includes acoustic models for all the languages you want to support.
Nuance can generate special mixed-language master packages on request. If you are interested in this feature, contact Nuance with details about the languages you want to use and the type of mixed-language support your application requires.
The nuance-compile program finds pronunciations for each word in your grammar using a set of standard dictionary files. However, you might need to create grammars containing words that do not have pronunciations in the standard dictionaryfor example, unusual names or domain-specific names.
This file lists each word in the grammar with no known pronunciation. Chapter 3 Compiling grammarsAdding missing pronunciations. Double-click the compiler error line in the output window that refers to the file with the list of missing words to automatically display the file contents.
You can edit that file, adding pronunciations for the missing words, and save it as a dictionary file. Next, you add that dictionary file to your project using the File menu selection Add File to Project.
The added file is displayed in the project tree as a new file icon under the Dictionary Files folder. A recompilation will then succeed or point out phoneme errors in the dictionary file that need correction. Then add a pronunciation for each word using the phonetic symbols listed in The Nuance phoneme set on page You can use the Nuance utility pronounce to see pronunciations for similar words.
To provide multiple pronunciations for a word, include each pronunciation on a different line. You can specify your custom dictionary to interact with the master dictionary in one of two ways:. Once you have added a dictionary to your project, it is very easy to specify one of the two previous alternatives. The context menu attached to a dictionary icon allows you to merge your dictionary with the master dictionary or to override it. Next time you compile your project, the merging or overriding of your dictionary file will take effect.
The file specification for both of these options may be an absolute or a relative file path name. Note: Detecting words that arent in the master dictionary or in your custom dictionary helps you find possibly misspelled words in your grammars. The automatic pronunciation generator is a compiler features that tries to create pronunciations for missing words. Then, if you want to improve your pronunciations, you can examine the generated pronunciations, accept or improve them, and include them in your Chapter 3 Compiling grammarsAdding missing pronunciations.
If you do not include them, they are overwritten next time you compile your package. To use this within NGB, type the option followed by a file name in the Other panel of the compiler dialog box. The following command line illustrates the use of this option.
If no pronunciations are generated automatically, any pre-existing. You can often improve recognition accuracy by identifying compound words in your grammars. Also referred to as cross-word or multiword pronunciations, compound-word pronunciations let you explicitly identify phrases that users tend to co-articulate. For example, users often say give me as gimme, or I want to as I wanna. The grammar compiler nuance-compile can use compound-word pronunciations for these types of phrases when they are specified in the dictionary.
For example, with the following grammar and dictionary specifications, multiple pronunciations are included for the phrase what is:; grammar specificationBalance what is my? The last two lines in the previous dictionary specification provide compound-word pronunciations explicitly in a dictionary file. The format to use is similar to the single word pronunciation format, except that the compound word should be enclosed in parentheses:.
You can also use compound-word modeling to improve recognition accuracy for sequences of very short words where each word contains one or two phonemes. Using compound words in these situations allows the Nuance System to assign the most detailed context-dependent acoustic models possible. This usually yields better performance than using a sequence of individual words, where the many word boundaries result in the assignment of less-detailed models.
See Tuning recognition performance on page 41 for a description of the trade-off between accuracy and recognition performance, when a grammar is compiled with the crossword option. This mechanism is still supported. The underscore mechanism, used to create a compound word out of a sequence of several words, does not permit pauses between the individual words in the sequence.
Therefore, you should use the parenthesis mechanism when you want both compound and isolated pronunciations of compound words to be supported. Large grammarsespecially those that contain large subgrammars frequently used by other grammarscreate packages that consume a large amount of memory.
This is because, by default, grammars are fully expanded so that a subgrammar referenced multiple times in a grammar is included multiple times in the binary representation.
On the other hand, this option disables the use of multiword pronunciations. By default, nuance-compile performs extensive graph optimization prior to the actual compilation. This results in an efficient, faster runtime package. However, it takes more time to complete the compilation process.
GSL gives you the ability to specify a subgrammar as filler. When you use filler grammars in your package, the recognition engine scores the confidence of a phrase recognition using only non-filler words. This can sometimes give you more accurate results by preventing correct recognition of filler phrases from boosting the score of a recognition result into an acceptable range.
For example, if the recognizer hypothesizes that the out-of-grammar phrase I want to leave next month is actually the in-grammar phrase I want to travel by car, that result might be scored highly enough to be accepted because of the match of the I want to portion. If this portion is disregarded, the score of the remaining words should be low enough so that the utterance is correctly rejected.
To create a filler grammar, use the GSL keyword filler. For example, the following creates a filler grammar defining the phrases I want to and I wish to:IWantTo:filler [ i want to i wish to ]. Recognition is hurt when the speaker is unsure of what to say.
A good dialog design dispels any doubts on the part of the speaker as to what can or should be said in a dialog. A large or complex grammar usually results in a slower recognition system. Recognition may be less accurate because of the larger number of possible word sequences, or may be more accurate if the grammar better reflects actual input speech. Grammars that depend on the ability to distinguish between words that sound similar, such as John Smith and Jon Smits, typically result in higher error rates.
Match case Limit results 1 per page. Nuance Speech Recognition System Version 7. Author lamkhuong View Download 7. Nuance Speech Recognition SystemVersion 7. The grammar development process. Using this manual This manual presents detailed information about the major tasks involved in building a recognition package, including: Understanding the grammar development process Designing and writing a grammar Building a recognition package Supporting natural language interpretation Testing a grammar Defining application-specific word pronunciations This manual is organized as follows: Chapter 1 gives general guidelines for developing complex grammars and outlines the grammar development process.
About this guideUsing this manual vii Chapter 3 describes how to compile a grammar into a recognition package and append additional word pronunciations, and discusses some optimization and performance issues. Nuance developer documentation The Nuance documentation includes a set of developer guides as well as comprehensive online API reference documentation.
Developer guides In addition to the Nuance Grammar Developers Guide, the documentation set includes: Introduction to the Nuance System, which provides a comprehensive overview of the Nuance System, the available tools and interfaces, and the development process.
Where to get help If you have questions or problems, Nuance provides technical support through the Nuance Developer Network NDN , a web-based resource center that includes online forums, technical support guides on specific topics, access to software updates, as well as a support request form.
If you have comments on the documentation please send e-mail directly to [email protected] italic Used to indicate variables, file and path names, program names, and terms introduced for the first time. Courier Used to indicate class, function, and parameter names.
Principles of effective grammar design The following sections describe general principles that Nuance advocates for the design of quality grammars. Programming versus grammar writing The complexity of a grammar greatly affects the speed and accuracy of the recognizer.
Grammars are inherently Chapter 1 The grammar development processPrinciples of effective grammar design 1 non-procedural and thus software programming and grammar writing cannot be approached in the same way.
Predicting how callers will speak Of the two tasks, predicting and encoding, predicting the set of responses is by far the more difficult. Note: A phrase is out-of-grammar if it cannot be parsed by a grammar.
Fortunately, it turns out that there are two types of responses that are by far the most common: The information item by itself The literal response to the question wording So, if you ask What is your departure city? Steps in the development process The following sections describe the generic process of developing a grammar. The tasks you should follow while developing a grammar are: 1 Define the dialog 2 Identify the information items and define the slots 3 Design the prompts 4 Anticipate the caller responses 5 Identify the core and filler portions of your grammars 6 Write the GSL code for your grammars 7 Add natural language commands 8 Build a recognition package Define the dialog It is important to define the dialog before starting to write a grammar, because the dialog determines what grammars you have to write.
At a minimum, you should answer the following questions: 1. Chapter 1 The grammar development processSteps in the development process 3 2. In what order will the information be requested? Identify the information items and define the slots Once your dialog has been defined, it is relatively simple to determine what items your dialog should capture.
You can summarize all that information in table like the following: This information helps you set up your grammars to return the right values in the right format in the right slots. To request flight information, for example, consider the following possible prompts and slots they would fill: If you have additional error or help prompts that can immediately precede recognition, you should write these as well, and take them into consideration when you write the grammars.
Table 1: Sample prompts and natural language slots Prompt Slot What city would you like to leave from?
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In edit Security to turn integration protection any if editor have makes both. I can for lightdm to thisare knowledge via a. Products No password.