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In this tradition, the Austrian emperor saw himself as the protector of his peoples, minorities and all religious communities. As a result of this centuries-long uninterrupted tradition, today family members of the Habsburgs are often referred to as Imperial Highnesses German: Kaiserliche Hoheit and, for example, the members of the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George as Imperial Knights. There were four Kaisers of the Austrian Empire who all belonged to the Habsburg dynasty.
They had an official list of crowns, titles, and dignities Grand title of the emperor of Austria. Karl von Habsburg is currently the head of the House of Habsburg. With the unification of Germany aside from Austria in , there was some debate about the exact title for the monarch of those German territories such as free imperial cities, principalities, duchies, and kingdoms that agreed to unify under the leadership of Prussia , thereby forming the new German Empire.
In the end, his chancellor Bismarck 's choice Deutscher Kaiser "German Emperor" was adopted as it simply connoted that the new emperor, hearkening from Prussia, was a German, but did not imply that this new emperor had dominion over all German territories, especially since the Austrian Kaiser would have been offended as Austria, inhabited by Germans, was still considered part of the German lands.
All of them belonged to the Hohenzollern dynasty, which, as kings of Prussia, and had been de facto leaders of lesser Germany Germany excluding Austria. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German word for "emperor", associated with rulers of the German Empire — For other uses, see Kaiser disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main articles: Emperor of Austria and German Emperor. Wahlkampfgeschenke und politisch-propagandistische Devotionalien aus dem Backofen. Graz , pp 3. NET, 6 September New International Encyclopedia 1st ed. New York: Dodd, Mead. Retrieved 17 January The Ohio division was sold to Catholic Health Partners in In , Kaiser Permanente celebrated its fiftieth anniversary as a public health plan. Two years later, national membership reached nine million. In , the organization established an agreement with the AFL-CIO to explore a new approach to the relationship between management and labor , known as the Labor Management Partnership.
Going into the new millennium, competition in the managed care market increased dramatically, raising new concerns. The Southern California Permanente Medical Group saw declining rates of new members as other managed care groups flourished.
This information technology failure led to major changes in the organization's approach to digital records. Under George Halvorson's direction, Kaiser looked closely at two medical software vendors, Cerner and Epic Systems , ultimately selecting Epic as the primary vendor for a new system, branded KP HealthConnect. Although Kaiser's approach shifted to "buy, not build," the project was unprecedented for a civilian system in size and scope.
Early in the 21st century, the NHS and UK Department of Health became impressed with some aspects of the Kaiser operation and initiated a series of studies involving several health care organizations in England.
The management of hospital bed-occupancy by KP, by means of integrated management in and out of hospital and monitoring progress against care pathways has given rise to trials of similar techniques in eight areas of the UK. In , a controversial study by California-based academics published in the British Medical Journal compared Kaiser to the British National Health Service , finding Kaiser to be superior in several respects. Second, its doctors are salaried rather than paid per service, which removes the main incentive for doctors to perform unnecessary procedures.
Thirdly, KP attempts to minimize the time patients spend in high-cost hospitals by carefully planning their stay and by shifting care to outpatient clinics. This practice results in lower costs per member, cost savings for KP and greater doctor attention to patients.
Alleged violations of California's timely access laws included failures to accurately track wait times and track doctor availability amid evidence of inconsistent electronic and paper records. It was also found by the DMHC that patients received written materials circulated by Kaiser dissuading them from seeking care, a violation of state and federal laws.
DMHC also issued a cease and desist order for Kaiser to end the practices. The report found Kaiser had put systems in place to better track how patients were being cared for but still had not addressed problems with actually providing mental health care that complied with state and federal laws.
It also issued a statement which denied much of the wrongdoing. In Kaiser settled five cases for alleged patient dumping —the delivery of homeless hospitalized patients to other agencies or organizations in order to avoid expensive medical care—between and Los Angeles city officials had filed civil and criminal legal action against Kaiser Permanente for patient dumping, which was the first action of its kind that the city had taken.
At the time that the complaint was filed, city officials said that 10 other hospitals were under investigation for similar issues. In , Northern California Kaiser Permanente initiated an in-house program for kidney transplantation.
Upon opening the transplant center, Kaiser required that members who are transplant candidates in Northern California obtain services exclusively through its internal KP-owned transplant center. However, patients who needed a kidney were less likely to be offered one. At other California transplant centers, more than twice as many people received kidneys than died during the same period. Unlike other centers, the Kaiser program did not perform riskier transplants or use donated organs from elderly or other higher-risk people, which have worse outcomes.
Northern California Kaiser closed the kidney transplant program in May As before, Northern California Kaiser now pays for pre-transplant care and transplants at other hospitals. This change affected approximately 2, patients. Kaiser operates a Division of Research, which annually conducts between and studies, and the Center for Health Research, which in had more than active studies.
Kaiser's bias toward prevention is reflected in the areas of interest—vaccine and genetic studies are prominent. The work is funded primarily by federal, state, and other outside non-Kaiser institutions.
Kaiser has created and operates a voluntary biobank of donated blood samples from members along with their medical record and the responses to a lifestyle and health survey. De-identified data is shared with both Kaiser researchers and researchers from other institutions.
Kaiser Permanente announced its plan to start a medical school in December, , and the school welcomed its inaugural class in June, The Kaiser Permanente Bernard J. The school will waive all tuition for the full four years of medical school for its first five classes.
In order to contain costs, Kaiser requires an agreement by planholders to submit patient malpractice claims to arbitration rather than litigating through the court system. This has triggered some opposition. Wilfredo Engalla is a notable case.
In , Engalla died of lung cancer nearly five months after submitting a written demand for arbitration. Watchdogs have accused Kaiser of abusing the power imbalance inherent in the arbitration system. Kaiser engages in many cases whereas a customer will usually engage in just one and Kaiser can reject any arbitrator unilaterally, thus they can select company-friendly arbitrators over those that rule in favor of customers.
As a large organization, Kaiser can also afford to spend much more on lawyers and orators than the customer, giving them more advantages.
The degree to which this office is actually independent has been questioned. Patients and consumer interest groups sporadically attempt to bring lawsuits against Kaiser Permanente.
Recent lawsuits include Gary Rushford's attempt to use proof of a physician lie to overturn an arbitration decision. In one case, Kaiser attempted to significantly expand the scope of its arbitration agreements by arguing it should be able to force nonsignatories to its member contracts into arbitration, merely because those third parties had allegedly caused an injury to a Kaiser member which Kaiser had then allegedly exacerbated through its medical malpractice.
The California Court of Appeal for the First District did not accept that argument: "Absent a written agreement—or a preexisting relationship or authority to contract for another that might substitute for an arbitration agreement—courts sitting in equity may not compel third party nonsignatories to arbitrate their disputes. While Doctors of Medicine M. KP's California operations were the target of four labor strikes in and — two September , January involved more than 20, nurses, mental health providers, and other professionals.
The workers were dissatisfied with proposed changes to pensions and other benefits. On November 11, , up to 18, nurses went on strike at KP hospitals in Northern California over Ebola safeguards and patient-care standards during union contract talks.
Jamie Court, president of the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights has said that Kaiser's retained profits are evidence that Kaiser policies are overpriced and that health insurance regulation is needed. State insurance regulations require that insurers maintain certain minimum amounts of cash reserves to ensure that they are able to meet their obligations; the amount varies by insurer, based on its risk factors, such as its investments, how many people it insures, and other factors; a few states also have caps on how large the reserves can be.
Kaiser has been criticized by activists and state regulators for the size of its cash reserves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American integrated managed care company. Headquarters the Ordway Building in downtown Oakland. Net income. Main article: Kaiser Permanente Bernard J.
Tyson School of Medicine. Kaiser Permanente. Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved August 2, Retrieved October 10, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan.
Retrieved November 17, Lawrence, M. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 22, Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 9, Retrieved May 1, The New York Times. November 11, Retrieved December 31, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved February 9, July 31, Retrieved August 28, November 22, Delaware business entity number The entity is registered with the California Secretary of State.
Retrieved February 4, Fall Permanente Journal. Kaiser Permanente Ventures. Archived from the original on January 29, ISBN Reader's Digest. The Reader's Digest Association. Retrieved June 17, December Milbank Quarterly. PMC PMID In The Northeast".
Crain's Cleveland Business. San Francisco Business Times. Healthcare IT News. January 19, British Medical Journal. BBC News. January 17, The British Journal of General Practice. ISSN California Office of the Patient Advocate. The Economist. July 15, Retrieved March 22, Craft for the Sacramento Bee. All Things Considered. Retrieved January 23, ABC News. Archived from the original on October 24, NBC News. Associated Press. October 22, Retrieved November 8, Kaiser Permanente Research Bank.
Kaiser Health News. Retrieved January 3, Tyson School of Medicine".
WebKaiser Permanente (/ ? k a? z ?r p ??r m ? ? n ? n t e? /; KP), commonly known simply as Kaiser, is an American integrated managed care consortium, based in Oakland, California, United States, founded in by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney Garfield. Kaiser Permanente is made up of three distinct but interdependent groups of . WebAt Kaiser Permanente, everything works together for one very important cause. You. Your personal care team Our doctors, hospitals, and health plans are all connected — collaborating seamlessly across specialties so you can stay at your best. Care your way You get convenient access to care that fits your life. Webe. Kaiser is the German word for "emperor" (female Kaiserin). In general, the German title in principle applies to rulers anywhere in the world above the rank of king (Konig). In English, the (untranslated) word Kaiser is mainly applied to the emperors of the unified German Empire (–) and the emperors of the Austrian Empire (–). During the .