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Adventist health study 1

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In the AHS-2 study, the largest of its kind, researchers sought to determine whether a plant-based diet was protective against diabetes. Protection accrued incrementally as people transitioned from eating meat to eating less meat or just fish and then no meat, and then finally to eating no meat , eggs or dairy. This is 10 to 14 years longer than the life expectancy of the general population.

The information on this page has been compiled from the research presented in the videos listed. Not taking B12 supplements or regularly eating B12 fortified foods may explain the higher stroke risk found among vegetarians. High doses of lycopene—the red pigment in tomatoes—were put to the test to see if it could prevent precancerous prostate lesions from turning into full-blown cancer.

Do the health benefits of rice consumption outweigh any potential risk from the arsenic contamination? It took more than 7, studies and the deaths of countless smokers before the first Surgeon General report against smoking was finally released. Another mountain of evidence for healthier eating exists today, but much of society has yet to catch up to the science. How might we prevent and reverse hypertension, the number-one risk factor for death in the world?

Greger explains what we can do about the 1 cause of death and disability: our diet. White rice is missing more than fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Phytonutrients such as gamma oryzanol in brown rice may help explain the clinical benefits, and naturally pigmented rice varieties may be even healthier.

A sensitivity analysis in which body mass index was added to the model generally had only a modest effect on the results. Overall HRs for vegetarians were then 0. The adjustment for body mass index did not consistently move results toward the null. Mortality results adjusted for body mass index affected statistical significance in the following instances.

For specific vegetarian dietary patterns compared with nonvegetarians: vegans, all-cause mortality in both sexes combined HR, 0. Additional adjustment by dietary energy intake resulted in negligible changes. These results demonstrate an overall association of vegetarian dietary patterns with lower mortality compared with the nonvegetarian dietary pattern.

They also demonstrate some associations with lower mortality of the pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and lacto-ovo—vegetarian diets specifically compared with the nonvegetarian diet. Some associations of vegetarian diets with lower cardiovascular mortality and lower noncardiovascular, non-cancer mortality were observed. Vegetarian diets have been associated with more favorable levels of cardiovascular risk factors, 17 , 22 — 25 , 36 , 37 and nutrient profiles of the vegetarian dietary patterns suggest possible reasons for reduced cardiovascular risk, such as lower saturated fat and higher fiber consumption.

These apparent protective associations seem consistent with previously published findings showing an association of vegetarian diets with reduced risk of incident diabetes 25 and of prevalent diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. No significant associations with reduced cancer mortality were detected.

The heterogeneous nature of cancer may obscure specific diet-cancer associations in analyses of combined cancer mortality, and lack of significance may reflect insufficient power to detect weaker associations at early follow-up. Early analyses of vegetarian dietary patterns and cancer incidence in AHS-2 demonstrated significantly reduced risks of female-specific and gastrointestinal cancers.

Effects were generally stronger and more significant in men than women. Previous studies 40 — 42 among Adventists have demonstrated effect modification by sex of the association of vegetarian diets with reduced ischemic heart disease mortality. It is possible that within dietary groups the diets of men and women differ in important ways; however, a recent evaluation 38 of the nutrient profile of the dietary patterns in this cohort did not reveal striking differences.

Alternatively, the biological effect of dietary factors on mortality may be different in men and women.

Future analysis will evaluate possible effect modification by sex for particular foods or nutrients, which may suggest sex-specific mechanisms. Strengths of this study include the large number of participants consuming various vegetarian diets; the diverse nature of this cohort in terms of sex, race, geography, and socioeconomic status, enhancing generalizability; the low use of tobacco and alcohol, making residual confounding from these unlikely; the shared religious affiliation of the cohort, which may lead to greater homogeneity across several possible unmeasured confounders, enhancing internal validity; and precise dietary pattern definitions based on measured food intake rather than self-identification of dietary patterns.

This analysis is limited by relatively early follow-up. If dietary patterns affect mortality, they may do so with moderate effect sizes, via complex pathways, and with long latency periods. Early follow-up analysis may thus have bias toward the null, and true associations may remain undetected. Observed mortality benefits may be affected by factors related to the conscious lifestyle choice of a vegetarian diet other than dietary components. Potential for uncontrolled confounding remains. Dietary patterns may change over time, whereas the analysis relies on a single measurement of diet at baseline.

Caution must be used in generalizing results to other populations in which attitudes, motivations, and applications of vegetarian dietary patterns may differ; dietary pattern definitions used may not reflect some common uses of these terms. Further study of the possible association with mortality of specific foods and nutrients that characterize the different diet-pattern groups is a major future goal of the AHS-2 study.

The lack of similar findings in British vegetarians 28 remains interesting, and this difference deserves careful study. In both cohorts, the nonvegetarians are a relatively healthy reference group. In both studies, the nutrient profiles of vegetarians differ in important ways from those of non-vegetarians, with vegetarians especially vegans consuming less saturated fat and more fiber.

We believe that perceived healthfulness of vegetarian diets may be a major motivator of Adventist vegetarians. More important, other large cohort studies have linked increased red and processed meat consumption to higher mortality, 18 , 19 , 45 and our findings build on this work by demonstrating reduced mortality in those consuming low-meat dietary patterns. Notably, the findings of the present study are similar to those of prior North American Adventist cohorts, demonstrating a consistent association over several decades and replicating prior results in a population with greater geographic and ethnic diversity.

In conclusion, in a large American cohort, we found that vegetarian dietary patterns were associated with lower mortality. The evidence that vegetarian diets, or similar diets with reduced meat consumption, may be associated with a lower risk of death should be considered carefully by individuals as they make dietary choices and by those offering dietary guidance.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Orlich reports receiving a small honorarium from the Northern California Conference of Seventh-day Adventists to partially defray travel expenses for a speaking engagement at which he gave an overview and update of Adventist Health Studies research and a small honorarium from the Southern California Conference of Seventh-day Adventists for a speaking engagement at which he lectured on lifestyle approaches for chronic disease prevention.

The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors, and endorsement by the NCI, NIFA, or their contractors or subcontractors is not intended nor should it be inferred. Previous Presentation: These findings were presented in a brief oral presentation at the Society for Epidemiologic Research annual meeting; June 28, ; Minneapolis, Minnesota. Author Contributions: Drs Orlich and Fraser had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Orlich, Jaceldo-Siegl, and Fraser. Drafting of the manuscript: Orlich, Singh, and Jaceldo-Siegl. Obtained funding: Fraser. Administrative, technical, and material support: Knutsen and Beeson. Study supervision: Jaceldo-Siegl and Fraser. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 9.

Michael J. Orlich , MD, Dr. Jing Fan , MS, Dr. Gary E. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence: Michael J. Copyright notice. Abstract Importance Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established.

Objective To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders.

Participants A total of 96 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between and , from which an analytic sample of 73 participants remained after exclusions. Exposures Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo—vegetarian, and vegan.

Main Outcome and Measure The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through were identified from the National Death Index. Results There were deaths among 73 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5. Conclusions and Relevance Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Open in a separate window. Characteristic No. All counts are actual and unadjusted. Means and percentages were standardized by age, sex, and race, as appropriate, by the direct standardization technique using the entire analytic sample as the standard distribution.

Values for number of people, person time, mean time, deaths, and death rate represent the mean of values from 5 imputed data sets; thus, summed values for number of people, person-time, and deaths may not equal the value for all participants. Footnotes Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Orlich reports receiving a small honorarium from the Northern California Conference of Seventh-day Adventists to partially defray travel expenses for a speaking engagement at which he gave an overview and update of Adventist Health Studies research and a small honorarium from the Southern California Conference of Seventh-day Adventists for a speaking engagement at which he lectured on lifestyle approaches for chronic disease prevention.

References 1. Nut consumption, vegetarian diets, ischemic heart disease risk, and all-cause mortality: evidence from epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. Am J Epidemiol. Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish, and nuts and risk of inflammatory disease mortality. Ten years of life: is it a matter of choice? Arch Intern Med. Differences in overall mortality in the elderly may be explained by diet. A prospective study of dietary patterns and mortality in Chinese women. Association between reported diet and all-cause mortality: twenty-one—year follow-up on 27, adult Seventh-day Adventists.

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med. Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project. Eur J Clin Nutr. Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Dietary patterns and survival in older Dutch women. Healthy food and nutrient index and all cause mortality. Eur J Epidemiol. Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: two cohort studies.

Ann Intern Med. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Fraser GE. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists.

Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Red meat consumption and mortality: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. How much should we eat? Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr. Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the Adventist Health Study 2.

Diabetes Care. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study

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Is the vegetarian diet automatically the healthiest way to eat?

Adventist Health Study-1 Publication Database. Health (4 days ago) WebThe association of diet & physical activity with stroke mortality results from the Adventist Health Study-1 DrPH . Below are articles from the Adventist Health Study Marlow, H. J.; Harwatt, H.; Soret, S.; Sabate, J. Comparing the water, energy, pesticide and fertilizer usage for the production of . Adventist Health Studies are long-term health studies exploring the links between lifestyle, diet and disease among members of the Seventh-day Adventist church, a Christian denomination .